Start Giving Vitamin C to Sepsis Patients Now!

It sounds almost too good to be true. Dr. Paul Marik, the Chief of Pul­monary and Crit­i­cal Care Med­i­cine at East­ern Vir­ginia Med­ical School, in Nor­folk, Vir­ginia, has found that a cock­tail of intra­venous vit­a­min C and cor­ti­cos­teroids, along with a lit­tle bit of thi­amine, may be a cure for sep­sis, which is a major cause of death. (Sep­sis killed Pat­ty Duke and Muham­mad Ali.) Many physi­cians are skep­ti­cal of Marik’s claim, for two rea­sons. First, they have heard a lot of non­sense about vit­a­min C over the years. Sec­ond, they have been trained to wait for the results of a dou­ble-blind ran­dom­ized con­trolled tri­al before they make any change in how they prac­tice med­i­cine. As a result, they may be slow to adopt Marik’s pro­to­col. But if they hes­i­tate, they will miss the chance to save lives. Physi­cians have noth­ing to lose by try­ing the Marik’s pro­to­col. Patients have every­thing to lose if their physi­cian hes­i­tates.

Saving the Lives of Sepsis Patients

Marik’s break­through came in Jan­u­ary of 2016, as he strug­gled to save the life of a 48-year-old woman suf­fer­ing from over­whelm­ing sep­sis. He had recent­ly read that vit­a­min C might be a use­ful treat­ment for sep­sis. He recalled that steroids, which are com­mon­ly used for treat­ing sep­sis, might work well in con­cert with vit­a­min C. So he ordered that the patient be giv­en a com­bi­na­tion of steroids and vit­a­min C intra­venous­ly. With­in hours, she start­ed to recov­er. Two days lat­er, she was well enough to leave the inten­sive care unit. Then, Marik and his col­leagues used the same treat­ment on two more patients who seemed des­tined to die of sep­sis. Those patients also recov­ered. At that point, Marik and his team adopt­ed the com­bi­na­tion ther­a­py as stan­dard prac­tice. They even­tu­al­ly added a small dose of thi­amine to the pro­to­col, because sep­sis patients are also often defi­cient in thi­amine. Since then, they have not seen a sin­gle patient die of sep­sis. (How­ev­er, some did die of the under­ly­ing dis­ease that led to sep­sis.)

Marik’s claims have been sup­port­ed by an ade­quate­ly pow­ered clin­i­cal study. How­ev­er, that study was ret­ro­spec­tive. It com­pared 47 con­sec­u­tive sep­tic patients treat­ed with his pro­to­col to 47 sep­tic patients who had been treat­ed before his insti­tu­tion began using the pro­to­col. Only 4 of the 47 patients treat­ed with the vit­a­min C pro­to­col died, as com­pared with 19 of the 47 patients in the con­trol group (P<.001). Most impor­tant­ly, none of the patients in the treat­ment group devel­oped pro­gres­sive organ fail­ure. That find­ing sug­gests that the treat­ment is effec­tive against the sep­sis, in par­tic­u­lar.

Sepsis Patients Need Vitamin C

Marik’s claim makes bio­log­i­cal sense. Sep­sis could actu­al­ly be a form of scurvy, which is the dis­ease that results from vit­a­min C defi­cien­cy. In 2012, Wil­son and Wu explained how and why vit­a­min C could improve the func­tion of tiny blood ves­sels in sep­sis patients. The vit­a­min C would have to be giv­en intra­venous­ly. That  would be the only way to raise the vit­a­min C con­cen­tra­tion to high enough lev­els. In 2015, Carr et al point­ed out that patients with sep­sis are known to have low vit­a­min C lev­els. In that arti­cle, the authors also explained that vit­a­min C is an impor­tant cofac­tor for the enzymes that are involved in the syn­the­sis of nor­ep­i­neph­rine and vaso­pressin, which are the hor­mones that help the body main­tain blood pres­sure.

Foolish Resistance

Sev­er­al doc­tors have told me that they would refuse to use this treat­ment. But the objec­tions that they give are fool­ish. Some of them insist that they will wait for a “prop­er” study to be done. But those doc­tors have nev­er been involved in research, and they do not under­stand that such a study would be ille­gal. It would mean allow­ing patients to die, when you could have saved their lives. Some oth­er doc­tors want to wait for the FDA to ren­der an opin­ion on the use of vit­a­min C in sep­sis. How­ev­er, the FDA will nev­er do that, because no phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal com­pa­ny is apply­ing for per­mis­sion to mar­ket vit­a­min C as a treat­ment for sep­sis! Vit­a­min C is already on the mar­ket as a gener­ic drug!

Don’t Wait for a Placebo-Controlled Trial!

Some doc­tors may quib­ble about the sup­posed “flaws” of the design of Marik’s study. They may insist on a prospec­tive, ran­dom­ized, place­bo-con­trolled study before they adopt the vit­a­min C pro­to­col. Yet the fanat­i­cal refusal to look at any oth­er kind of evi­dence is an error in rea­son­ing called method­ola­try. The word method­ola­try is a port­man­teau of method­ol­o­gy and idol­a­try. David Gorsky explains the prob­lem of method­ola­try here.

Do not wait for a place­bo-con­trolled tri­al of vit­a­min C for sep­sis. No such study will ever be done, because no such study should ever be done. Doing such a study would vio­late a basic prin­ci­ple of med­ical research ethics! Researchers are not sup­posed to assign patients with a seri­ous ill­ness to dif­fer­ent treat­ment arms unless there is real uncer­tain­ty about which of the treat­ments would be bet­ter. This prin­ci­ple is called clin­i­cal equipoise. Yet there is no real uncer­tain­ty about the val­ue of vit­a­min C for sep­sis. The prob­a­bil­i­ty that the results of the ret­ro­spec­tive study were due to ran­dom chance is less than one in a thou­sand. Nor was there any rea­son to sus­pect that the dif­fer­ences in out­come were due to any con­found­ing vari­ables. Nor are there any seri­ous safe­ty con­cerns about adding vit­a­min C and some thi­amine to the com­mon­ly used cor­ti­cos­teroid treat­ment for sep­sis.

Reg­u­la­to­ry agen­cies typ­i­cal­ly require drug com­pa­nies to do dou­ble-blind, ran­dom­ized con­trolled tri­als to sup­port a new drug appli­ca­tion. Yet there are some excep­tions. For exam­ple, the Food and Drug Administration’s approval of lep­irudin (Reflu­dan®) for anti­co­ag­u­la­tion in patients with heparin-induced throm­bo­cy­tope­nia was based on a clin­i­cal tri­al that used his­tor­i­cal con­trols. The FDA did not require the drug’s spon­sor to assign patients to a place­bo treat­ment that would have threat­ened life and limb.

Do Not Wait for the FDA!

One doc­tor have told me that he will wait for the Food and Drug Admin­is­tra­tion to ren­der an opin­ion about the use of vit­a­min C for sep­sis. Yet that doc­tor has clear­ly nev­er worked in phar­ma, and he does not under­stand what the FDA is for. The FDA reg­u­lates drug mar­ket­ing, not med­ical prac­tice. The FDA decides what the drug com­pa­nies can sell in the Unit­ed States, and how they can sell it. Doc­tors can gen­er­al­ly use the avail­able prod­ucts as they see fit, even for pur­pos­es that were not men­tioned in the approved pre­scrib­ing infor­ma­tion. The FDA is not going to give any phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal com­pa­ny the per­mis­sion to adver­tise their vit­a­min C prod­uct as a treat­ment for sep­sis, because no drug com­pa­ny is going to go to the trou­ble and expense of sub­mit­ting a new drug appli­ca­tion (NDA) to get a new indi­ca­tion for a gener­ic drug.

Use Vitamin C and Thiamine for Sepsis Now!

So we now know that vit­a­min C, which is a cheap, eas­i­ly avail­able prod­uct with a long his­to­ry of safe use, is prob­a­bly the key to the pre­vent­ing peo­ple from dying of sep­sis, which is a major cause of death. Adding vit­a­min C and thi­amine to the stan­dard steroid treat­ment for sep­sis saves lives. The med­ical pro­fes­sion will be judged by how fast or how slow­ly it acts on this infor­ma­tion.




2 thoughts on “Start Giving Vitamin C to Sepsis Patients Now!”

  1. Thank you Lau­rie for your well rea­soned thoughts on this excit­ing break­thru. I have been read­ing about vit­a­min c as a adjunc­tive treat­ment for sep­sis for at least 6 years now. EVERY sin­gle study or paper calls for more study. Only one or two sug­ges­tions that it might be wor­thy of care­ful use until the results of the mul­ti­cen­ter tri­als con­firm its effi­ca­cy. I had even drawn up a list of poten­tial ingre­di­ents to acom­pa­ny the vite c. Thi­amine was 14 on my list of 22. Aspirin (anti­co­ag, anti-inflam­ma­to­ry), vite d (immunomod­u­la­tor often defi­cient in sep­sis pts), quercetin (reduce vas­cu­lar leak­age), and glycine(neuro calm­ing effect) would prob­a­bly have been my first fan­ta­sy ingre­di­ents. No need now. Answer seems to be here before the proof. Until harm can be proven, I say use the answer and let those capa­ble of run­ning the stud­ies and rais­ing the huge amounts of $ need­ed, get to work in the mean time. Because right now the weapons in the crit­i­cal care tool box are insuf­fi­cient for the task at hand. This prob­lem of sep­sis has an answer that has been extreme­ly dif­fi­cult to ascer­tain. The results of the Marik Pro­to­col bor­der on the amaz­ing which invites the skep­ti­cism born of many pre­vi­ous promis­ing implod­ing “cures”. How­ev­er this one goes right to the core of the prob­lem, fail­ure of cir­cu­la­tion sur­round­ing the organs. Cir­cu­la­to­ry sys­tem fail­ure is the first organ fail­ure in the sep­sis chain. All the MOF’s pro­ceed from there. Marik’s pro­to­col goes right to the heart of the prob­lem, that is why its results are so strik­ing, so dra­mat­ic.

    1. Of course, Marik’s pro­to­col needs fur­ther study. But ICU doc­tors should study it fur­ther by imple­ment­ing it right away and see­ing if their patients stop dying. They do not need to wait for the com­ple­tion of the kind of study only a Nazi would do: ran­dom­ly assign­ing peo­ple either to receive life-sav­ing treat­ment or to go with­out. There is no longer enough uncer­tain­ty about the val­ue of Marik’s pro­to­col to jus­ti­fy a place­bo arm.
      Some peo­ple have com­ment­ed that Marik’s treat­ment is “nat­ur­al.” It is not. It is nat­ur­al for human beings to get a fair­ly small dose of vit­a­min C from their food. We do not nat­u­ral­ly inject pure vit­a­min C direct­ly into our blood­stream.

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